1.PFOS, Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid
1.PFOS, Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid is a man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant. PFOS was the key ingredient in Scotchgard, a fabric protector made by 3M, and numerous stain repellents. It was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May 2009. PFOS can form from the degradation of precursors in addition to industrial production. The PFOS levels that have been detected in wildlife are considered high enough to affect health parameters, and recently higher serum levels of PFOS were found to be associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease in the general United States population, consistent with earlier animal studies.PFOS is implicated in thyroid disease. It is found prominently in meat and fish. wz
2..PFOA Perfluorooctanoic Acid.
2.PFOA Perfluorooctanoic Acid. It has been used in the manufacture of such prominent consumer goods as Teflon and Gore-Tex. PFOA has been manufactured since the 1940s in industrial quantities. It is also formed by the degradation of precursors such as some fluorotelomers. PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment. It is a toxicant and carcinogen in animals. PFOA has been detected in the blood of more than 98% of the general US population in the low and sub-parts per billion range, and levels are higher in chemical plant employees and surrounding subpopulations. Exposure has been associated with increased cholesterol and uric acid levels, and recently higher serum levels of PFOA were found to be associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease in the general United States. Food, drinking water, outdoor air, indoor air, dust, and food packagings are all implicated as sources of PFOA to people. The highest PFOA levels also were associated with 78% higher odds of peripheral artery disease, a condition related to heart disease in which the arteries in the limbs narrow and harden.